Baking Powder (1 tsp): 1 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 tsp cream of tartar.

Bouquet Garni: Equal measures of thyme, parsley and crushed bay leaf; OR Equal measures of thyme, chervil and crushed bay leaf; OR Equal measures of basil, marjoram, and summer savory.

Bread Crumbs (1/4 cup): 1/4 cup finely crushed cracker crumbs, corn flakes or quick-cooking oats.

Butter (1 lb): 7/8 Cup solid shortening plus 1/2 tsp. salt

Buttermilk/Sour Milk (1 cup): 1 Tbsp lemon juice or vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup. Let stand 5 minutes before using. Or use 1 cup plain yogurt.

Chocolate – Semisweet (1 square): 1 oz unsweetened baking chocolate plus 1 Tbsp sugar.

Chocolate – Unsweetened (1 square): 3 Tbsp baking cocoa plus 1 Tbsp shortening or margarine.

Cornstarch (1 tbsp): 2 Tbsp flour or 4 tsp quick-cooking tapioca.

Corn Syrup – Light (1 cup): 1 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup water.

Corn Syrup – Dark (1 cup): 1 cup light corn syrup; 3/4 cup light corn syrup plus 1/4 cup molasses; or 1 cup maple-flavored syrup.

Cream, heavy (1 cup): 2/3 cup milk and 1/3 cup butter.

Eggs (1 large): 2 egg whites; or 1/4 cup store-bought egg whites; or 2 egg yolks (for custard or puddings); or 2 egg yolks plus 1 Tbsp water (for cookies or bars); or 1 tsp. cornstarch;. or 4 extra tbs. of whatever liquid was used in the recipe.

Flour – All-purpose (1 cup): 1 cup plus 2 Tbsp cake flour.

Flour – Cake (1 cup): 1 cup minus 2 Tbsp all-purpose flour.

Flour – Self-rising (1 cup):
1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/2 tsp baking powder and 1/2 tsp salt.

Garlic, finely chopped (1 medium clove): 1/8 tsp garlic powder or 1/4 tsp instant minced garlic or 1/2 tsp garlic salt.

Gingerroot, grated or finely chopped (1 tsp): 3/4 tsp ground ginger.

Herbs, chopped, fresh (1 tbsp): 3/4 to 1 tsp dried herbs.

Honey(1 cup): 1 1/4 cups sugar plus 1/4 cup water or liquid used in recipe.

Lemon Juice, fresh (1 tbsp): 1 Tbsp bottled lemon juice or white vinegar.

Lemon Peel, grated (1 tsp): 1 tsp dried lemon peel.

Milk (1 cup): 1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water; or nonfat dry milk prepared as directed on package with 2 1/2 tsp melted butter added.

Onion, small 1: 1 tbs. instant minced or 1 tsp. onion powder.

Orange Peel, grated (1 tsp): 1 tsp dried orange peel.

Oregano (1 tsp): 1 tsp. marjoram.

Poultry Seasoning: Equal parts sage, thyme, oregano and marjoram.

Red Pepper Sauce (3 or 4 drops): 1/8 tsp cayenne pepper.

Sour Cream (1 cup): 1 cup plain yogurt.

Sugar, brown, packed (1 cup): 1 cup granulated sugar plus 2 Tbsp molasses or dark corn syrup.

Sugar, granulated (1 cup): 1 cup light brown sugar (packed) or 2 cups powdered sugar.

Sugar, superfine: Blend regular granulated sugar in the blender.

Vanilla Extract: Grated lemon rind, orange rind, cinnamon or nutmeg combined with a small amount of the liquid called for in the recipe to make up the amount of vanilla extract specified in the recipe.

Whipping Cream (1 cup): 1 cup frozen (thawed) whipped topping or 1 cup prepared whipped topping mix.

Yeast, regular or quick active dry (1 pkg or 1/4 oz): 2 1/4 tsp regular or quick active dry; or 1 package (6 oz) compressed cake yeast.